ABSTRACTS Volume 45/2, 2003
NATURAL TOXINS FROM CYANOBACTERIA
JOANNA MANKIEWICZ1*, MALGORZATA TARCZYNSKA2,
ZOFIA WALTER1, AND MACIEJ ZALEWSKI3
1Department of Molecular Genetics and 2Department
of Applied Ecology University of LódĽ, ul. Banacha 12/16, 90-237 LódĽ,
3International Centre for Ecology, PAS, ul. M. Konopnickiej 1, 05-092
* e-mail: email@example.com.
Received April 5, 2002; revision accepted November 22, 2002
Morphologically, physiologically and metabolically, cyanobacteria (blue-green
algae) are one of the most diverse groups of prokaryotes. Cyanobacteria bloom
abundantly in surface waters as a result of eutrophication, and they produce
different types of toxins, so they not only hinder recreational use of bodies of
water but also cause health problems in humans and animals. Cyanobacterial
toxins (cyanotoxins) can be classified in five groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins,
cytotoxins, dermatotoxins and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides).
Key words: Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, cyanotoxins, effect on
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND GERMINATION IN ORCHIDS
TATYANA B. BATYGINA, ELENA A. BRAGINA, AND VALENTINA E.
Department of Embryology and Reproductive Biology, Komarov
Botanical Institute, Prof. Popov Str., 2, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
Received August 12, 2002; revision accepted May 15, 2003
The peculiarities of seminal and vegetative multiplication in orchids are
discussed. The main pathways of morphogenesis during the formation of the whole
organism of orchids in natural conditions and in vitro culture are reviewed.
Peculiarities of development and the role of the protocorm in the life cycle are
pointed out. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of polyembryony of
orchids and their germination.
Key words: Orchids, polyembryony, germination, protocorm, brood bud,
AUTORADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECT
OF CHILLING ON SOYBEAN ROOT MERISTEM NUCLEOLI
DARIUSZ STĘPIŃSKI* AND MARIA KWIATKOWSKA
Department of Cytophysiology, University of ŁódĽ, ul.
Pilarskiego 14, 90-231 ŁódĽ, Poland
Received May 30, 2002; revision accepted November 20, 2002
Root meristem nucleoli from soybean (Glycine max. cv. Aldana) seedlings
germinated for 3 days at 25°C and then for 4 days at 10°C or still at 25°C (control)
were examined. Chill was observed to reduce root meristematic zone growth
15-fold. Nucleoli doubled their volume at 10°C. Autoradiographic studies showed
that after 20 min 3H-uridine incubation at 10°C, incorporation of this
precursor (postincubation 0) into nucleoli of chilled seedlings was 4.7 times
weaker than in the control. After 80 min postincubation in nonradioactive
medium, the cytoplasm became the most intensely labelled cell area in the
control material, while in chilled roots the nucleoli were still most intensely
labelled and the cytoplasm was 11 times less labelled than in the control. The
increase in nucleoli volume at 10°C is suggested to result from greater
cold-induced inhibition of the dynamics of maturation and transport of ribosome
subunits than of rRNA synthesis dynamics. Ultrastructural studies of chilled
seedling nucleoli showed a significant decrease in the fibrillar component and
an increase in the granular component, forming characteristic clusters. They are
supposed to correspond to shortened and condensed pre-rRNA transcription
complexes (compacted “Christmas trees”).
Key words: 3H-uridine incorporation, ultrastructure, nucleolus,
meristematic soybean root cells.
ANATOMICAL AND CHEMICAL ADAPTATION OF SPARTIUM JUNCEUM L.
IN ARID HABITAT
NADA BEZIĆ*1, VALERIJA DUNKIĆ1, AND
1Department of Biology, University of Split,
Teslina 12, 21000 Split, Croatia
2Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Split, Teslina 10/V,
21000 Split, Croatia
Received March 6, 2002; revision accepted November 15, 2002 A number of
anatomical adaptations to an arid habitat can be noted in the microscopic
structure of Spartium junceum L. vegetative organs. The xerophytic adaptation of
the leaf is seen in its short life and the transformation of its inner structure,
with palisade parenchyma dominating. The top part of the stem has taken over the
leaf function, while sclerenchyma fiber and conductive elements occupy most of
its secondary units. A peculiar feature of the primary structure of the root is
its incompletely developed endodermis, and the secondary structure points to its
storage and mechanical roles. GC/MS analyses of the essential oils showed that
they consist mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons with α-thujene as the main
compound. The essential oils also play a xeromorphic role in this plant species.
Key words: Spartium junceum L., xeromorphic adaptation, stem, leaf,
root, essential oil, α-thujene.
KARYOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF SELECTED ANGIOSPERMS FROM
GEORGIA AND AZERBAIJAN
HANNA SCHNEEWEISS1* AND GERALD M. SCHNEEWEISS2
1Department of Higher Plant Systematics and
2Department of Chorology and Vegetation Science, Institute of Botany,
University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria
Received October 29, 2002; revision accepted January 30,
Chromosome numbers of eleven angiosperm species, five dicots and six monocots
from Georgia and Azerbaijan are reported. The chromosome number of Cruciata
coronata (Rubiaceae) is provided for the first time (2n = 22). Additionally,
karyotypes are presented for five species, those of Danae racemosa (Ruscaceae),
Paris incompleta (Trilliaceae) and Ruscus hyrcanus (Ruscaceae) for the first
time. The new data are compared with previous karyological information, and both
are discussed in a biosystematic context.
Key words: Chromosome number, karyotype, karyosystematics, polyploidy,
STUDY OF OVULE AND MEGAGAMETOPHYTE DEVELOPMENT IN FOUR
SPECIES OF SUBTRIBE PHASEOLINAE (LEGUMINOSAE)
ANA FAIGÓN SOVERNA*, BEATRIZ GALATI**, AND PATRICIA HOC
Department of Biology, Buenos Aires University, C1428EHA,
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Ovule development, megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were studied in
Macroptilium bracteatum, Phaseolus augusti, P. vulgaris var. aborigineus and
Vigna adenantha to elucidate their taxonomic position. The ovule is
anacampylotropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate. Megaspore tetrads are linear in
M. bracteatum and T-shaped in the other three species. In all species the
chalazal megaspore produces an embryo sac of Polygonum type. The results are
discussed in relation to the current taxonomic classification. Our findings
support the position of Macroptilium as a separate genus and the inclusion of V.
adenantha in the genus Phaseolus. This is the first report of the use of
embryological characters to solve intergeneric relationships of the Phaseolus-Vigna-Macroptilium
neotropical complex, pointing out the method’s usefulness.
Key words: Phaseolinae, ovule, megaspore tetrad, embryo sac.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MATURE CONE TRAITS AND SEED VIABILITY
IN JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS L. SUBSP. MACROCARPA (SM.) BALL (CUPRESSACEAE)
ROCIO JUAN, JULIO PASTOR, INMACULADA FERNÁNDEZ, AND JUAN
Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of
Sevilla, Box 1095, 41080 Sevilla, Spain
Received September 24, 2002; revision accepted February 11,
The study addressed different biological aspects of Juniperus oxycedrus
subsp. macrocarpa, including female cone production, biometric analysis of
mature cones and seeds, and their viability. The results indicate that the
proportion of aborted female cones was very high. In the four populations
studied, cone diameter and weight and seed length and weight were closely
related. The distribution of numbers of seeds with and without embryos in mature
cones was examined, as well as the frequency of numbers of seeds with embryos.
The general trend in all populations was three seeds per mature cone, of which
only one or two showed embryos. Tetrazolium tests showed the percentage of
viable seeds to be lower.
Key words: Biometric, fertility, tetrazolium test, Juniperus,
SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN GENTIANA PNEUMONANTHE L.
ANNA BACH AND BOŻENA PAWŁOWSKA
Department of Ornamentals, Agricultural University Al. 29
Listopada 54, 31-425 Cracow, Poland
Received August 21, 2002; revision accepted February 7,
A method for micropropagation of the protected species Gentiana pneumonanthe
L. by somatic embryogenesis (SE) was elaborated. For SE induction, secondary
explants of leaves and apical meristems from in vitro cultures were successfully
used. Tests of callus induction were carried out on ten media containing BA
(0.04-8 μM) and Picloram or 2,4-D (4.0-8.0 μM). The greatest
amounts of embryogenic callus developed on media containing 2,4-D and also when
the incubation period in darkness was prolonged. Embryos matured on media with
reduced content of auxins [Picloram or 2,4-D (0.8 μM or 0.08 μM) and
BA (0.8 μM)] and germinated on hormone-free media. Cytometric analysis of
the callus and plants obtained from somatic embryos showed that DNA content
differed from that of the mother plants, but acclimatized marsh gentians
contained the same amount of DNA as donor plants.
Key words: Gentiana pneumonanthe L, in vitro, somatic embryogenesis,
zygotic embryos, nature protection, nuclear DNA amount, flow cytometry.
CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS IN NEEDLES OF DAMAGED FIR
(ABIES ALBA MILL.) FROM RISNJAK NATIONAL PARK IN CROATIA
TOMISLAV BAČIĆ1, ZVONIMIR UŽAREVIĆ1,
LJILJANA GRGIĆ1, JADRANKA ROŠA2 AND ŽELJKO POPOVIĆ1
1Department of Biology, J. J. Strossmayer
University, L. Jägera 9, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2Department of Ecology, Croatian Forests, Vukotinovićeva 1, 10000
Received July 16; revision accepted January 20, 2003
Chlorophyll and carotenoid content was studied in needles of damaged silver
fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees growing in a polluted habitat, Risnjak National
Park, and of almost undamaged ones growing at a much less polluted site, Donja
Dobra, both locations in the Gorski Kotar region. Chlorophyll a and b, total
chlorophylls and carotenoids were lower in needles from the polluted Risnjak
site than in those from the unpolluted Donja Dobra site. The data indicate an
increase of pigment content over the course of a year; and somewhat smaller
content in the first in comparison with the second experimental year. The
chlorophyll a:b ratios varied independently of pollution level and locality.
Key words: Pinaceae, Abies alba Mill., needles, chlorophylls,
carotenoids, air pollution.
CHROMOSOME NUMBERS OF POLISH FERNS
DANIELLA IVANOVA1 and HALINA PIĘKO¦-MIRKOWA2
1Institute of Botany, Bulgarian Academy of
Sciences, 23 Acad. G. Bonchev Street, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, al.
A. Mickiewicza 33, 31-120 Cracow, Poland
Received June 30, 2002; revision accepted February 14, 2003
The paper reports the results of karyological studies on seven fern species
from the Polish Carpathians. Their chromosome numbers counted in root tip
mitoses are reported for the first time from Poland. The specimens originated
from the Tatra Mts and Pieniny range. Chromosome numbers were established for
Asplenium viride (2n = 72), Athyrium filix-femina (2n = 80), Dryopteris
filix-mas (2n = 164), Gymnocarpium dryopteris (2n = 160), Gymnocarpium
robertianum (2n = 160), Phegopteris connectilis (2n = 90) and Phyllitis
scolopendrium subsp. scolopendrium (2n = 72). The chromosome numbers from the
Polish material match those reported from other countries. Information on the
distribution and habitats of the investigated fern species is also provided.
Key words: Pteridophytes, ferns, chromosome numbers, southern Poland,
RAPD ANALYSIS OF SOMACLONAL AND NATURAL DNA VARIATION IN
HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L.
JANA HALUŠKOVÁ* AND JÁN KOŠUTH
Institute of Biology and Ecology, P. J. Šafárik
University, Mánesova 23, 041 67 Ko±ice, Slovakia
Received May 6, 2002; revision accepted April 22, 2003
RAPD analysis of DNA variation in somaclones of Hypericum perforatum which
passed through one or two cycles of in vitro regeneration revealed great
variation among the donor plants from which the somaclones were regenerated. The
donor plants represented either seed-derived plants or the seed progeny of
first-cycle somaclones. The variation among them may indicate natural genetic
variation in Hypericum perforatum. In addition, no differences were found in the
RAPD profiles of 51 first-cycle somaclones within groups originated from 7 donor
plants. This may point to relative stability of the Hypericum perforatum genome
under given conditions of in vitro regeneration. One polymorphic band was found
in 3 of 51 RAPD profiles of second-cycle somaclones, perhaps an effect of
repeated in vitro regeneration on DNA changes. Study of DNA variation among 75
Hypericum perforatum progenies derived from 8 mother plants indicates the
prevalence of the apomictic mode of reproduction. Analysis of 47 seed progenies
of diploid somaclones derived from 5 R3 plants may suggest the sexual mode of
Key words: Hypericum perforatum, RAPD, intraspecific variation, in
vitro regeneration, somaclonal variation, DNA changes.
KARYOLOGY OF PLAGIOMNIUM. II. PLAGIOMNIUM UNDULATUM (HEDW.)
LESŁAW PRZYWARA1, ELŻBIETA KUTA1, AND
1Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology,
Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
2Cytogenetics Group in the Department of Plant Breeding and Seed
Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140
Received February 1, 2003; revision accepted March 3, 2003
In a study of Plagiomnium undulatum from Poland, variability in karyotype
formula and chromosome set length contrasted with high uniformity of chromosome
number. Haploid chromosome number n = 6 was counted in 215 of 216 metaphases of
plants originating from five populations, and n = 7 (6 + 1m) in one cell. The
chromosomes were examined and ranked by total and relative length and arm ratio.
The haploid set of P. undulatum consists of three chromosome types: metacentric
(m), submetacentric (sm) and subtelocentric (st). The frequencies of chromosome
types differ between plates. In one population three types of karyotype were
distinguished: 5m + 1sm, 3m + 2sm + 1st, and 2m + 3sm + 1st. The arm ratio of
the longest chromosome is stable, and the chromosome represents a mainly
Key words: Plagiomnium undulatum, bryophytes, mosses, chromosome
numbers, chromosome morphology.
EFFECT OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE BIOLOGICAL CLOCK IN
BERNARDA PISKORZ-BIŃCZYCKA1 , JANINA FIEMA2,
AND MARTA NOWAK1
1University of Rzeszów, Institute of
Biotechnology, ul. Rejtana 16c, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
2The F. Górski Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of
Sciences ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
Received December 5, 2002; revision accepted May 10, 2003
Cultures of Penicillium claviforme were grown in a magnetic field (60-70
mT) for 12 days under constant light or constant darkness. In light, the
magnetic field affected the length of the rhythm period, which was at first
somewhat shortened and later prolonged (24 h ® 24 h ® 36 h ® 36 h). In
darkness, activation of the biological clock was manifested in the rhythm of the
formation of coremia rings. The period of induced rhythm was different from that
induced in light, representing a multiple of the 24 h period (96 h ® 96 h ® 96
h). The magnetic field distinctly affected the morphology of the newly formed
coremia, which were identical in light and in darkness. In the applied
conditions the magnetic field replaced the inductive effect of light, activating
the expression of the biological clock in darkness. This is the first time that
a magnetic field has been used to replace the inductive effect of light.
Key words: Penicillium claviforme, magnetic field (static), biological
CYTOGENETIC STABILITY OF WHEAT LINES (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
WITH ADDED AND SUBSTITUTED CHROMOSOMES OF RYE (SECALE CEREALE L.)
Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural
University, ul. Akademicka 15, 20-934 Lublin, Poland
Received February 20, 2003; accepted May 25, 2003
Transmission of added and substituted rye chromosomes through generations and
behavior of chromosomes at meiosis was analyzed. Among the addition lines,
chromosome 7R was most often transmitted and 6R most rarely. In substitution
line 1B/1R, no elimination of rye chromosomes was observed in any generation.
The tested lines differed from wheat in the behavior of chromosomes at meiosis.
The rye and wheat chromosomes interacted during meiosis. The added rye
chromosomes influenced bivalent shape and univalent frequency at metaphase I,
the number of delayed chromosomes and chromatid bridges at anaphase I, and the
occurrence of micronuclei in tetrads. In the majority of lines the frequency of
open bivalents and univalents was higher than in ‘Grana’ wheat and ‘Dańkowskie
Złote’ rye. Rye chromosomes occurred more frequently as univalents than wheat
chromosomes did. Neither multivalent associations nor homoeologous pairing were
observed. The studied lines had good cytogenetic stability.
Key words: mitosis, meiosis, cytogenetic stability, addition lines,
substitution line 1B/1R.
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CENTAUREA RUPESTRIS L.
MIRNA ĆURKOVIĆ PERICA
Department of Biology, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg
20/II, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Received June 30, 2002; revision accepted April 15, 2003
A rapid clonal propagation method was developed for Centaurea rupestris L., a
Balkan Apennine endemic which contains a flavonoid with strong antiphytoviral,
antibacterial and antifungal activity. Shoots from aseptically germinated seeds
were used for culture initiation. The highest multiplication rate, 11.88 shoots
per explant, was achieved in 4 weeks in the third subculture on MS medium
supplemented with 1 μM 6-benzylaminopurine and 2.9 μM gibberellic
acid. The best rooting of excised shoots was achieved on half-strength MS medium
supplemented with 3 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Rooted plantlets were
transferred to potting soil and acclimatized to outdoor conditions.
Key words: Centaurea rupestris L., endemic plant, flavonoid,
ACCUMULATION OF CESIUM IN LEAVES OF LEPIDIUM SATIVUM AND
ITS INFLUENCE ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND TRANSPIRATION
GRAŻYNA BYSTRZEJEWSKA-PIOTROWSKA AND PAWEŁ Ł. URBAN
Isotopic Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Miecznikowa
1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
Received February 20, 2003; revision accepted June 1, 2003
The study examines the transfer factor (TF) for cesium in a soil-plant system
and cesium accumulation in cress Lepidium sativum L. plants grown in hydroponic
culture and subjected to root and foliar application of 0.3 mM CsCl. The
experiments showed a high TF for radiocesium: 2.97 (kBq/kg plant DW)/(kBq/kg
soil DW). High accumulation of cesium was observed in leaves after both root and
foliar treatments. A higher concentration of cesium (3 mM) caused significant
disturbance in water uptake, tissue hydration (FW/DW) and production of biomass
(DW). Accumulation of cesium in leaves affected gas exchange parameters.
Stomatal conductance (C) and transpiration rate (E) were strongly inhibited but
photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (P) was disturbed to a lesser extent. As a
result, photosynthetic water utilization efficiency (P/E) was unaffected by 3 mM
cesium at photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 220 µmol ´ m-2 ´ s-1.
Increasing PAR from 220 to 450 µmol ´ m-2 ´ s-1 stimulated the photosynthetic
rate after 3 days, but no stimulation was observed after 5 days of cesium
treatment, in comparison with potassium-grown plants. Changes in chlorophyll
fluorescence, indicating maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, were
observed only as a late stress effect. Decreased stomatal opening was an early
effect of cesium stress in Lepidium sativum, which resulted in limitation of
transpiration and water uptake. It is suggested that the decrease in tissue
hydration is what limits photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, synthesis of organic
matter and light reactions of photosynthesis.
Key words: Lepidium sativum L., cesium accumulation, stress detection,
stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence.
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN PROTEINS IN ACER
PLATANOIDES L. SEEDS DURING MATURATION
TOMASZ PAWŁOWSKI1* AND ANDRZEJ KALINOWSKI2
1Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of
Sciences, ul. Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland
2Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.
Strzeszyńska 34, 61-479 Poznań, Poland
Received March 19, 2003; revision accepted June 12, 2003
Maturation of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) seeds produces deep
physiological dormancy and resistance to desiccation. This study used
two-dimensional electrophoresis to investigate the protein products of genes
activated during the complex developmental process of maturation. Qualitative
and quantitative changes in protein composition during maturation were tracked
in this species. The most intensive changes in protein content appeared at the
end of seed maturation, in embryo axes and cotyledons. During this time their
protein content increased significantly and new proteins appeared. Presumably
the proteins Q (15 kDa, pI 8) and X (16 kDa, pI 5) separated from cotyledons are
associated with maturation of seeds.
Key words: Acer platanoides, desiccation, development, Norway maple,
seed dormancy, trees.
REGENERATION OF DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID PLANTS OF
ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA VIA CALLUS
ALICJA FRAS* AND JOLANTA MALUSZYNSKA
Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of
Silesia, ul. Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
Received March 30, 2003; revision accepted June 30, 2003
Different explants from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype
Wilna were cultured in vitro on the same medium in the same conditions. The mode
of and capacity for regeneration and the ploidy level of regenerants were
examined in eight callus lines. The explant responses to in vitro conditions
depended on the ploidy level of donor plants and on the type of explant. Callus
derived from leaves of tetraploid plants showed the highest ability to
regenerate. Histological investigation showed that plants regenerated mostly
through organogenesis and occasionally through embryogenesis. Somatic embryos
were observed more frequently in callus derived from tetraploid plants.
Regenerated plants were diploids, triploids and tetraploids. The majority of
regenerated plants from callus of diploid origin were diploid, but diploids were
also observed quite frequently among regenerants from callus of tetraploid
Key words: Arabidopsis thaliana, regeneration, ploidy, organogenesis,
polyploidization, somatic embryogenesis.
SEDUM ACRE EMBRYOGENESIS: POLYPLOIDIZATION IN THE SUSPENSOR
MAŁGORZATA KOZIERADZKA-KISZKURNO AND JERZY BOHDANOWICZ*
Department of Genetics and Cytology, University of Gdańsk,
ul. Kładki 24, 80-822 Gdańsk, Poland
Received April 1, 2003; revision accepted July 2, 2003
Cytological processes of differentiation in the embryo suspensor of Sedum
acre L. were compared with the development of the embryo proper. The zygote
undergoes an asymmetric division to produce an apical cell and a basal cell,
which becomes the basal cell of the suspensor. The mature differentiated
suspensor consists of a large haustorial basal cell and 3-4 chalazal cells.
The basal cell nucleus gradually grows to a considerable size, and the amount of
nuclear DNA also increases. The highest degree of ploidy (1024C) was observed in
basal cell in large >100-celled embryos. Chromocenters at low (8C-16C) and
middle (32C-64C) levels of ploidy, endochromocenters at higher (128C-256C)
and the highest (512C-1024C) levels of ploidy were observed. Changes in DNA
content, nucleus size and chromatin structure point to endoreduplication as the
mechanism of polyploidization of the suspensor in Sedum acre.
Key words: Sedum acre, DNA cytophotometry, endoreduplication,
polyploidization, suspensor, basal cell.
KARYOLOGY OF NINE LILY GENOTYPES
AGNIESZKA MARASEK* AND TERESA ORLIKOWSKA
Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skr. Pocz.
105, 96-100 Skierniewice, Poland
Received April 3, 2003; revision accepted July 3, 2003
Chromosome morphology was studied in lily genotypes L. candidum, L. x
formolongi, L. henryi and L. pumilum, and cultivars 'Alma Ata,'
'Expression,' 'Marco Polo,' 'Muscadet' and 'Star Gazer'
belonging to the horticultural group Oriental hybrids. All genotypes tested
represented 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes. Chromosomal markers were established after
Feulgen and silver staining, from analysis of the chromosome length and position
of the primary and secondary constrictions. For each chromosome the arm index
was calculated. Based on these data, idiograms were drawn. For the genotypes
analyzed the markers were the secondary constrictions, as confirmed by silver
staining. Chromosome length can be used as a marker in only a few cases. From 4
to 10 chromosomes could be identified using secondary constrictions as markers,
depending on the genotype. Markers are proposed for each possible species x
cultivar and cultivar x species combination.
Key words: Lilium spp., chromosome morphology, hybrids.
MICROTUBULE PATTERNS AND ORGANELLES DURING
MICROSPOROGENESIS IN APOMICTIC CHONDRILLA JUNCEA L.
MARIA KO¦CIŃSKA-PAJˇK1* AND JÓZEF BEDNARA2
1Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology,
Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
2Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska
University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
Received April 6, 2003; revision accepted July 10, 2003
This study investigated patterns of cytoskeletal organization during
microsporogenesis in Chondrilla juncea L., an autonomous apomict with a triploid
chromosome number (2n = 15). The distribution of microtubules and organelles is
not typical. The microtubules do not form a normal phragmoplast and consequently
the organelle equatorial plate observed in many taxons is not present. The
organelles are dispersed randomly in both the central and peripheral parts of
Key words: Chondrilla juncea L., immunofluorescence,
microsporogenesis, phragmoplast, microtubular cytoskeleton, organelle
GENETIC VARIATION IN NATURAL AND CULTIVATED POPULATIONS OF
MARIA MOROZOWSKA1 AND MARIA KRZAKOWA2
1Department of Botany, August Cieszkowski
Agricultural University, ul. Wojska Polskiego 71C, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
2Department of Genetics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Międzychodzka
5, 60-371 Poznań, Poland
Received March 10, 2002; revision accepted July 24, 2003
Primula veris, a well-known pharmaceutical plant, is a long-lived perennial
protected by law in Poland, so its rhizomes and roots can be collected as
pharmaceutical stock only from cultivation. Genetic variation of three natural
P. veris populations numbering 500-1200 individuals and of three cultivated
populations derived from seeds collected from natural sites was investigated in
respect of two enzyme systems: phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and
diaphorase (DIA). Four presumptive loci were identified from these two enzyme
systems. In 6PGD, only one (6PGD-2) of two detected loci was polymorphic,
consisting of three alleles a, b and c. Each of two electrophoretically detected
loci in DIA was polymorphic and had two alleles. Comparison of the cultivated
and natural populations revealed slight differentiation in the presence and
composition of genotypes for 6PGD-2, while for DIA all populations except one
preserved the same set of genotypes. Mean values of the polymorphism index for
three loci ranged from 0.239 to 0.345 for natural populations and from 0.303 to
0.446 for cultivated populations, indicating that cultivated populations were
more polymorphic than natural ones. The level of heterozygosity in the examined
populations was very low. Mean values for Ho calculated for three polymorphic
loci ranged from 0.033 to 0.056. The observed low heterozygosity level was
confirmed by high values of Wright’s fixation index, ranging from 0.798 to
Key words: Primula veris, electrophoresis, genetic diversity,
THE EFFECT OF CARBOHYDRATE SOURCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF
BRASSICA NAPUS L. IMMATURE EMBRYOS IN VITRO
HALINA ¦LESAK AND LESLAW PRZYWARA*
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian
University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: * firstname.lastname@example.org
Received June 1, 2003; accepted July 24, 2003
The effect of fructose, glucose, maltose and sucrose at various
concentrations on Brassica napus embryos was studied. The morphogenetic reaction
depended on the type and concentration of sugar in the medium. The frequency of
developing embryos was highest on sucrose, followed by maltose and glucose.
Fructose did not stimulate embryo growth. Spectrophotometry of autoclaved
fructose showed an absorbance rise between 260-320 nm that could correspond to
the formation of furfural derivatives. Autoclaving-induced toxicity probably
inhibited embryo growth; heart-shaped stage embryos developed on
filter-sterilized fructose. The frequency of developing embryos increased with
sugar concentration, but normal embryogenesis occurred only on 1% sucrose and
maltose; at higher concentrations callus and/or shoots were formed. On media
with 6% sucrose and 12% maltose, shoots and somatic embryos were produced.
Key words: Brassica napus, carbohydrates, embryo culture,
organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis.