ABSTRACTS Volume 43, 2001
in Phenolic Acids of Cherry Laurel
officinalis Oxygemmis) Fruit During Maturation
June 27, 2000; accepted February 14, 2001
in phenolic acid content during the maturation of cherry laurel (Laurocerasus
officinalis Oxygemmis) fruits were studied. Samples were obtained
starting 40 days after flowering between May and July. In the fruits, p-coumaric,
caffeic and ferulic acids (as cinnamics) and benzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic
and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids (as benzoics) were identified. The content of
benzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and caffeic acids started to increase from 6
to 12 WAF (weeks after flowering). The content of p-coumaric
and ferulic acids, highest at 6 WAF, declined gradually until 11 WAF and
increased again at 12 WAF. All phenolic acids except vanillic and ferulic acids
began to decrease in the fruits harvested at 16 WAF, that is, the normal
harvesting season. Although an increase in vanillic and ferulic acid content was
observed in post-ripening between 13 and 16 WAF, the values were not
statistically significant (P = 0.05) between stages. The highest content of
phenolic acid in the cultivar was found for benzoic, caffeic and vanillic acids:
2.53, 1.05 and 0.86 mg/100g dry weight, respectively.
Number of Some Alchemilla L. (Rosaceae)
and Hüseyin Inceer
of Biology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080Trabzon, Turkey
February 13, 2001; Revision accepted June 11, 2001
paper presents the results of karyological analysis of five Alchemilla
species collected from northeast Anatolia, Turkey, belonging to sect. Alchemilla
Rothm. subsect. Chirophyllum Rothm.
ser. Sericeae Bus., subsect. Heliodrosium
Rothm. ser. Vulgares Bus. and
subsect. Calycanthum Rothm. ser. Elatae
Rothm. The following chromosome numbers were determined: A.
amoena (Czeczott) Rothm. 2n = 90-102, A.
chlorosericea Bus. 2n = 92-103, A.
glabricaulis Lindb. 2n = 90-109, A.
hessii Rothm. 2n = 88-96, A.
porrectidens Juz. 2n = 86-96. The chromosome numbers of three of these
five species are presented for the first time.
Alchemilla, chromosome numbers,
Apparatus Structure and Essential Oil Constituents of Satureja
Valerija Dunkić 1, Ani Radonić2
of Split, Department of Biology, Teslina 12, 21000 Split, Croatia
of Split, Department of Organic Chemistry, Teslina 10/V, 21000 Split, Croatia
April 2, 2001; accepted July 6, 2001
study examines the anatomical structure of the glandular apparatus in Satureja
cuneifolia Ten., as well as the chemical composition of the essential oil
derived from it. Leaves were collected from a population in Dalmatia (Croatia).
Anatomically, the glandular scales feature a unicellular base, a unicellular
stalk and a 12-celled head. Each glandular apparatus was observed to be
surrounded by epidermal cells. Qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analysis of
the essential oil showed that linalool, carvacrol and p-cymen were its main
Satureja cuneifolia, glandular
apparatus, essential oil, linalool.
In Vitro Shoot Multiplication with Growth Regulators
and Light Conditions in Musa
acuminata cv. Dwarf Cavendish
S.Samantaray2 and P. Das1
Biotechnology Division, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory,
Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory,
Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar 751 015, India
March 1, 2000; accepted January 4, 2001
efficient protocol was developed for in vitro mass propagation of the commercial
cultivar Musa acuminata cv. Dwarf
Cavendish through shoot apices culture. Shoot apices with 2-3 pairs of leaf
primordia were induced from sliced rhizome explants on Murashige and Skoog
(1962) medium supplemented with 6.0 mg/l BA, 150 mg/l Ads and 3% (w/v) sucrose.
Multiple shoots were induced from meristematic domes on the same medium.
Addition of 1.0-1.5 mg/l IAA to the culture medium and incubation in continuous
light (24 h) increased the yield of multiple shoots. The high multiplication
coefficient was maintained stable up to the 5th subculture;
thereafter it declined. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the
shoots onto half-strength MS medium supplemented with 500 mg/l activated
charcoal and 2% (w/v) sucrose. Micropropagated plantlets were hardened in a
polyethylene house and successfully established in soil. There was no
morphological variation among the micropropagated plants.
growth regulators, micro-propagation, in vitro, light conditions.
Profiles of Plasmid DNA from Wild Strains of Desulfovibrio
Dzierżewicz, Beata Cwalina, Joanna Szczerba, Ilona Bednarek, Urszula Mazurek,
and Tadeusz Wilczok.
of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Biopharmacy
Medical University of Silesia, ul. Narcyzów 1, 41-200 Sosnowiec
June 6, 2001; accepted August 13, 2001
of many strategies of bacteria survival in a contaminated environment is
plasmid-encoded resistance to toxic substances. D.
desulfuricans wild strains isolated from soil and mud samples taken from
contaminated sites were studied to identify plasmids in these bacteria and to
examine their restriction profiles. The presence of plasmid DNA in all tested
strains was demonstrated. Using BstEII-digested
DNA of phage l
as the molecular standard, plasmid size was established at ~2.3 kbp. The
restriction fragments obtained after cutting plasmid DNA with endonuclease HaeIII
or AluI were better separated on
gradient polyacrylamide gel than on homogeneous gel. Very high similarity
between the fragment profiles was demonstrated, despite the different origins of
the strains tested.
sulphate-reducing bacteria, plasmid, electrophoresis, restriction fragments.
Cycle Synchronization in the Root Meristem of Allium
Wołoszyn1, Hieronim Golczyk1 and Andrzej Joachimiak*
of Plant Cytology and Embryology, JagiellOnian
ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
Group in the Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science
The Agricultural University of Cracow,
ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
May 15, 2001; accepted June 27, 2001
high level of cell cycle synchronization in Allium
cepa was achieved using a 24 h hydroxyurea block (1.25 mM) followed by 20 h
of recovery (without hydroxyurea) and a subsequent 4 h treatment with saturated a-bromonaphthalene
solution. This procedure was very effective in producing a synchronously
dividing cell population with a 76% mean mitotic index and a 30% frequency of
metaphase stages. After release from hydroxyurea arrest, large fractions of
cells synchronously entered successive phases: G1, S, and G2.
The calculated duration of the cell cycle was 13 h, in general accordance with
previous reports. A detailed protocol for obtaining a high mitotic index and a
large portion of cells in a particular cycle phase (G1, S, G2)
Allium cepa, root meristem, cell
cycle, synchronization, mitotic index, hydroxyurea, a-bromonaphthalene,
studies in Bromus (Poaceae) from the
Old and New Worlds - preliminary results
Sutkowska2, Józef Mitka3
1Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Institute of Botany
Jagiellonian University, ul. Grodzka
52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
2Cytogenetics Group in the Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science
The Agricultural University of
Cracow, Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Garden, Jagiellonian University, ul. Kopernika 27, 31-501 Cracow, Poland
April 30, 2001; accepted July 9, 2001
analysis was applied to nine Bromus
species (B. fasciculatus, B.
arvensis, B. scoparius, B.
hordeaceus, B. squarrosus, B.
carinatus, B. willdenowii, B. erectus,
B. inermis) belonging to four
subgenera: subg. Stenobromus, subg. Bromus,
subg. Ceratochloa, and subg. Festucaria.
With 10 out 13 primers a considerable degree of polymorphism was detected at the
interspecific level, and some bands obtained with these primers appeared to be
species-specific. The RAPD band distribution and genetic relationships between
different Bromus species and
subgenera were analyzed. No bands common to all analyzed species were
discovered, but some of the amplified DNA fragments were common to all taxa
belonging to the same subgenera or even different ones. The divisions suggested
by taxonomists generally were confirmed by numerical analysis of the RAPD data
Bromus L., nuclear DNA, RAPD,
and Interpopulational Relations of Betula
pendula Roth (Betulaceae) in Croatia, Based on Leaf Morphometry
and Diana imić2
Department and Botanical Garden, University of ZagrebMarulićev trg 9a, 10000
2Institute for Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, 10000 Zagreb
May 7, 2001; accepted July 5, 2001
morphometric variables of silver birch (Betula
pendula Roth) leaves from 5 bioclimatic regions of Croatia were analyzed to
establish the pattern of intrapopulational and interpopulational relations. As
introgression in Croatia could be almost entirely excluded, this research may
represent a model of a consistent B.
pendula species. Leaf samples were taken from fertile and sterile shoots
separately, and the analyses yielded statistically significant differences
between them. There was significant variability of all variables within and
between populations. The most prominent variables in evaluation of
interpopulational variability of the leaves from both fertile and sterile shoots
of B. pendula were the distance from
the leaf base to the widest point of the lamina (at P = 0.01) and the angle of
the leaf base (at P = 0.001). These variables could be used in future research
on genetic diversity among populations of B.
Betula pendula, morphometry, leaf
morphology, multivariate analysis, fertile and sterile shoots, Croatia.
and Nuclear DNA Amount in Six Bromus
Adam Kula2, Elwira Śliwińska3, Anna Sobieszczańska2
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian
University ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland
Cytogenetics Group in the Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science The
Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Technology and Agriculture,
ul. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796
May 17, 2001; accepted July 17, 2001
and C-banding chromosome studies and nuclear DNA estimations were performed on
six Bromus species (B.
arvensis, 2n = 2x = 14; B. hordeaceus,
2n = 4x = 28; B. carinatus, 2n = 8x =
56; B. willdenowii, 2n = 6x = 42; B.
erectus, 2n = 8x = 56; and B. inermis,
2n = 8x = 56) belonging to three subgenera: subg. Bromus,
subg. Ceratochloa and subg. Festucaria.
Three species (B. carinatus, B.
erectus and B. inermis) show
different chromosome numbers within root-tip meristem. Root-tip cells of these
high polyploid species (2n = 8x = 56) showed substantial DNA variability.
Densitometric and flow-cytometric analyses clearly showed that many interphase
nuclei are beyond the expected 2C-4C limit characteristic of cycling cells. The
most distinct DNA instabilities were observed in B.
carinatus, where we found especially high numerical chromosome variations
and many chromosome numbers higher and lower than 2n = 8x = 56. Such
quantitative DNA variability is substantially reduced beyond the meristematic
part of the roots and virtually absent within leaf mesophyll cells. Estimated
nuclear 2C DNA content was 11.63 pg in B.
arvensis, 23.03 pg in B. hordeaceus,
22.94 pg in B. carinatus, 12.99 pg in
B. willdenowii, 24.65 pg in B.
erectus and 24.54 pg in B. inermis.
By DNA amount, the analyzed taxa formed two distinct groups: with 2C DNA value
at about 12 pg (B. arvensis and
B. willdenowii), and at about 24 pg (B.
hordeaceus, B. carinatus, B. erectus and B.
inermis). Estimated DNA values were not linked with ploidy level. All
species showed a similar, mainly telomeric heterochromatin distribution, but
small amounts of intercalary and centromeric heterochromatin were also seen. The
majority of analyzed species also had similar heterochromatin amounts within
karyotype. The only exception was B.
carinatus with 16.20% heterochromatin (calculated as percent of karyotype
length). It is suggested that the observed 77% nuclear DNA difference between
two closely related representatives of subg. Ceratochloa
(B. carinatus and B.
willdenowii) is to some extent a result of heterochromatin accumulation in B.
Bromus L., chromosome number,
karyotype, heterochromatin, DNA amount, flow cytometry, C-banding.
of Microsporogenesis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants
with Altered Proportions of Native
Histone H1 Variants
Ślusarczyk1, Marta Prymakowska-Bosak2, Marcin Przewłoka2,
Andrzej Jerzmanowski2,3 and Mieczysław Kuraś4
Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Świętokrzyska Academyul.Świętokrzyska
15, 25-343 Kielce, Poland
Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology, Warsaw University,
ul. Pawińskiego 5a,02-106 Warsaw,
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Pawińskiego 5a,02-106 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Plant Morphogenesis, Warsaw University,
ul. Miecznikowa 1,02-096 Warsaw, Poland
April 18, 2001; accepted July 19, 2001
role of histone H1 in the regulation of flower growth and development and in
microsporogenesis was investigated in previously obtained transgenic tobacco
plants expressing the antisense histone H1 cDNA. These plants exhibited a
characteristic male-sterility phenotype caused by altered proportions of the
native histone H1 in chromatin. The type and frequency of chromosomal
aberrations during male meiosis as well as the distortions affecting tetrad
formation in transgenic plants are reported.
Tobacco, histone H1, meiosis, chromosomal aberrations, male sterility.
Chromosomes of Luzula luzuloides
(Juncaceae) in Callus Culture
Madej and Elżbieta Kuta*
January 15, 2001; accepted April 4, 2001
long-term callus culture from Luzula
luzuloides leaf meristem subcultured for over one year was examined
cytologically. In the control material most of the mitotic cells (95.97%)
represented diploid level and standard chromosomes in terms of length (2n =
12AL). Aneuploidy occurred
with low frequency (4.03%), with somatic chromosome numbers 2n = 13, 14
resulting from partial agmatoploidy. Karyotype analysis of control material
showed differences in chromosome length ranging from 4.94 um
to 3.19 um
in prometaphase, 3.54 um
to 2.54 um
in mid metaphase, and 2.81 um
to 1.88 um
in late metaphase. Callus cells exhibited a wide range of chromosome number
variation (2n = 7-48), although a high percentage of cells (61.39%) represented
the standard karyotype (2n = 12AL). Variability in chromosome number and
karyotype structure was a consequence of chromosome fission (partial and total
agmatoploidy), chromosome fusion (partial symploidy) as well as aneuploidy and
polyploidy. There was no evident correlation between the frequency of structural
and numerical chromosome variation and the duration of callus culture. The cells
with modified karyotype appeared in particular collections.
Immunocytochemical Studies on Petunia
Maria Isabel RodríGuez-GarcíA3 and Elżbieta Bednarska2
of Developmental Biology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology Nicolaus
Copernicus University, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
of Education, Institute of Biology and Environmental Protection,
76-200 Słupsk, Poland
of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants Estación Experimental del
Zaidín (CSIC), E-18008 Granada, Spain
June 7, 2001; accepted August 2, 2001
commercial anti-calmodulin monoclonal antibody (CaM MAb) was used to determine
the presence and localization of calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like protein in
unpollinated and pollinated styles of Petunia
hybrida. In the unpollinated style, CaM was localized in the cytoplasm of
transmitting tract cells. The response to pollination and/or pollen tube growth
was the presence of bound CaM-like protein in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of
transmitting tissue. Gold particles were localized in the ECM surrounding the
tips of the growing pollen tubes. In the pollen tubes, CaM epitopes were present
mainly in and around some vesicles of the apical cytoplasm. The results suggest
that CaM and CaM-like protein are involved in pollen tube growth in vivo.
Petunia hybrida, calmodulin,
calmodulin-like protein, extracellular matrix, pollen-pistil interaction, pollen
and Seed Morphology of Diploids and Natural Tetraploids of
Trifolium pratense L.
, H. Nurhan Büyükkartal and Hatice Çölgeçen
of Biology, University of Ankara, 06100 Ankara, Turkey
November 26, 2000; accepted April 30, 2001
and seed morphology were examined in diploids (2n = 14) and natural tetraploids
(2n = 28) of Trifolium pratense L.
The pollen morphology was generally correlated with ploidy level. Great variety
in pollen size and apertures was noted in the tetraploid form. Exine structure
was studied by TEM. Seed size, color and coat surface ornamentation can be
distinguished between the diploid and tetraploid forms.
Trifolium pratense L., Leguminosae,
and Antimitotic Activity of Polysaccharides from Fruit Bodies of Xerocomus
badius (Fr.) Kühn. Ex Gilb.
Węgiel1, Grażyna Końska1, Jean Guillot2, Bożena
Muszyńska1, Jacques Bohatier2 and Stanisław Kohlmünzer1
of Pharmaceutical Botany, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University,
ul. Medyczna 9, 30-688 Cracow, Poland
de Recherche en Biologie Cellulaire et Environnement Universite d'Auvergne -
Clermont 1, Faculte de Pharmacie 28 pl. H. Dunant, F- 63000
February 22, 2001; accepted June 18, 2001
polysaccharide fractions were isolated from Xerocomus
badius fruit bodies with a dry weight yield of 0.41% (Polysaccharide
fraction A) and 0.89% (Polysaccharide fraction B). Their sugar content was 99.5%
and 98.7%, respectively. Polysaccharide fraction A was composed of glucose,
while Polysaccharide fraction B contained mainly glucose and mannose. Biological
activity testing using the Allium test showed mitostatic and mitodepressant
activity for both fractions. Polysaccharide fraction A exhibited a mitostatic
action at a concentration of 0.5%, while Polysaccharide fraction B showed such
activity at 0.5% and 0.25% concentrations after 24 h and 48 h. Polysaccharide
fraction B exerted a direct influence on cell division of the tested organism in
the Tetrahymena test.
Xerocomus badius, glucan,
glucomannan, Allium test, mitotic index, Tetrahymena test.
of the gynoecium
Sac in relation
laboratory of MOE for Plant Developmental Biology, Wuhan
University, Wuhan 430072, China
March 22, 2001; accepted June 8, 2001
This article addresses the
gynoecium and embryo sac from a fresh viewpoint, i.e. the apoplastic system
involved in the pistil and their putative functions in sexual processes. This
system includes the extracellular matrix of the pollen tube track with
particular emphasis on the micropyle and synergids, the intercellular space
between the cells of the female germ unit, and the apoplast surrounding the
embryo sac. Most of the data cited are research results during the last decade,
mainly from ultrastructural and cytochemical observations, that give some
interesting and important information about the apoplastic system concerned.
extracellular matrix, gynoecium, pollen tube track, micropyle, synergid, embryo
Initiation and Plant Regeneration from Hypocotyls and Cotyledons of Androgenic
Embryos of Brassica napus L.
Bagniewska1 , Teresa Cegielska-Taras2 and Maciej Zenkteler1
of General Botany, Institute of Experimental Biology,
Mickiewicz University, Al. Niepodległości 14, 61-713 Poznań, Poland
of Plant Tissue Culture, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute,
Strzeszyńska 36, Poznań, Poland
February 19, 2001; accepted May 14, 2001
of plants from hypocotyls and cotyledons of androgenic embryos of winter oilseed
rape (Brassica napus L. homozygous
line DH-O 120) were investigated. Both types of explants were cultured on
Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Gamborg (B5) media with or without a low
concentration of growth regulators added. Buds showed the highest developmental
ability on B5 medium in the presence of 0.5 mg 1-1GA3.
All shoots and secondary embryos derived from cotyledons and hypocotyls were of
cortical origin. Starch grains gradually disappeared as shoot initiation
proceeded, indicating their role in the process of organogenesis.
Brassica napus, haploid, androgenic
embryos, plant regeneration.